Genitourinary Considerations in Reoperative and Complex Colorectal Surgery

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Genitourinary structures are at risk of injury during colorectal surgery. The incidence of injury is low; however, the risk is higher in cases involving severe inflammatory or infectious processes, locally advanced or recurrent cancer, previous radiation, and reoperation. Consideration of the anatomical relationship between the genitourinary system, and the colon and rectum is crucial to avoid injuries. Intraoperative diagnostic techniques such as intravenous pyelogram (IVP), fluoroscopic cystogram, or retrograde urethrogram can aid in identifying suspected injuries. Early recognition and repair of injuries decrease the morbidity of an injury. Repair of injuries depends on the location and extent of the injury. Simple injuries may be repaired primarily, while complex injuries may require more advanced repairs such as a flap reconstruction.

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