Ketamine Alters Outcome-Related Local Field Potentials in Monkey Prefrontal Cortex

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A subanesthetic dose of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine is known to induce a schizophrenia-like phenotype in humans and nonhuman primates alike. The transient behavioral changes mimic the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms of the disease but the neural mechanisms behind these changes are poorly understood. A growing body of evidence indicates that the cognitive control processes associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions relies on groups of neurons synchronizing at narrow-band frequencies measurable in the local field potential (LFP). Here, we recorded LFPs from the caudo-lateral PFC of 2 macaque monkeys performing an antisaccade task, which requires the suppression of an automatic saccade toward a stimulus and the initiation of a goal-directed saccade in the opposite direction. Preketamine injection activity showed significant differences in a narrow 20–30 Hz beta frequency band between correct and error trials in the postsaccade response epoch. Ketamine significantly impaired the animals' performance and was associated with a loss of the differences in outcome-specific beta-band power. Instead, we observed a large increase in high-gamma-band activity. Our results suggest that the PFC employs beta-band synchronization to prepare for top–down cognitive control of saccades and the monitoring of task outcome.

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