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Recently, we reported that 4-hydroxyderricin, one of the major chalcones in Angelica keiskei extract (ethyl acetate extract from the yellow liquid of stems), exerted hypotensive and lipid regulatory actions in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). In the present study, we isolated xanthoangelol, another major chalcone in A. keiskei extract, and examined the effect of dietary xanthoangelol on blood pressure and lipid metabolism in SHRSP.Six-week-old male SHRSP were fed diets containing 0.02% or 0.1% xanthoangelol (0.02 and 0.10 Xan, respectively) for 7 weeks, with free access to the diet and water. There were no significant changes in daily food intake, bodyweight or systolic blood pressure throughout the experimental period. Serum total cholesterol levels tended to decrease in the two experimental groups (albeit not significantly), which was due to a dose-dependent decrease in the cholesterol content of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) fraction. These results suggest that dietary xanthoangelol decreases serum LDL levels.In the liver, significant dose-dependent decreases in relative liver liver weight and total triglyceride content were seen in the 0.02 and 0.10 Xan groups. In addition, a significant decrease in total cholesterol content was found in the 0.10 Xan group, which may be due to an elevation of faecal cholesterol excretion in addition to the decrease in liver weight.Investigation of the hepatic mRNA expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism indicated that there was a significant increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α mRNA expression associated with the tendency for increases in acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA expression in the 0.10 Xan group, which may be responsible, at least in part, for the decrease in hepatic triglyceride content in the xanthoangelol-treated rats. In additon, a significant increase in LDL receptor mRNA expression in the 0.10 Xan group may be responsible, at least in part, for the decrease in serum LDL levels in the xanthoangelol-treated rats.In conclusion, dietary xanthoangelol results in a reduction of serum LDL levels and decreases in total cholesterol and triglyceride contents in the liver of SHRSP. These beneficial effects are more effective following consumption of diet containing 0.10% xanthoangelol.