The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in high mobility group box 1 and 2 (HMGB1 and HMGB2, respectively) with platinum-based chemotherapy responses in Chinese lung cancer patients. In total, 338 Chinese lung cancer patients (154 responders and 184 non-responders) were recruited to the study. All patients received at least two cycles of first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of HMGB1 and two tagging SNPs of HMGB2 were detected in patients. We found that rs1412125 and rs2249825 of HMGB1 were significantly associated with the platinum-based chemotherapy response in both recessive and genotypic models. In addition, rs1412125 showed significant association with platinum-based chemotherapy response for the subgroup of patients aged >55 years in additive, recessive and genotypic models. No significant associations were detected between other SNPs and the platinum-based chemotherapy response. The HMGB1 SNPs (rs1412125 and rs2249825) were associated with platinum-based chemotherapy responses in Chinese lung cancer patients. In conclusion, HMGB1 SNPs may serve as potential biomarkers for predicting the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy.