Physicochemical properties of radiographic contrast media, potential nephrotoxicity and prophylaxis

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Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a controversial topic. The clinical relevance of changes in laboratory parameters has been challenged; some authors have even suggested that CIN simply reflects natural fluctuations. Other areas of controversy include the pathophysiology of CIN, effectiveness of prophylactic approaches and differences in nephrotoxicity between individual contrast media (CM). The aim of this review is to summarize the current understanding of laboratory findings and explore its relationship to CM toxicity.

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