Correction of anemia by erythropoietin (EPO) is often associated with a rise in blood pressure (BP; EPO-induced hypertension). Most studies regarding EPO-induced hypertension have involved evaluation using office/clinic BP (OBP). However, recent investigations suggest that BP measured at home (HBP) may be of more importance for clinical practice in hypertension. In this context, the present study addressed whether or not HBP measured in the morning could be useful to predict EPO-induced hypertension.Methods.
The study involved patients with mild to moderate renal impairment who had renal anemia requiring EPO treatment. BP control was evaluated based on the relationship between OBP and HBP in the morning. The BP categories used were well-controlled BP, poorly controlled BP, hypertension with a white-coat effect (white-coat hypertension), and masked hypertension. Comparison was made of the BP categories before and after EPO treatment.Results.
Before EPO treatment, 38% of patients had well-controlled BP, 30% had poorly controlled BP, 20% had masked hypertension, and 12% had white-coat hypertension, revealing a predominance of morning hypertension (poorly controlled BP plus masked hypertension). Following EPO treatment, the prevalence of morning hypertension in patients with masked hypertension and poorly controlled BP increased significantly, by 5% (HBP in those with masked hypertension increased from 152 +/- 18 mmHg to 162 +/- 25 mmHg, and HBP in those with poorly controlled BP increased from 157 +/- 18 mmHg to 168 +/- 25 mmHg; P < 0.05 by paired t-test). And there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of the well-controlled category, by 8%, with an increased level of morning HBP (from 128 +/- 14 mmHg to 137 +/- 16 mmHg; P < 0.05 by paired t-test). In contrast, OBP remained unchanged in all groups. The development of EPO-induced hypertension was effectively predicted by HBP in the morning (from 62% to 72% before and after EPO treatment; P = 0.0031 by Wilcoxon's analysis), but not by OBP (from 42% to 47% before and after treatment; P = 0.1399).Conclusions.
The present study indicates that, despite receiving concurrent antihypertensive therapy, the majority of patients with renal disease had morning hypertension. Furthermore, HBP in the morning can be more useful than OBP to predict the development of EPO-induced hypertension in patients with renal anemia.