Successful treatment of mucormycosis in a renal allograft recipient

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Abstract

Introduction

Mucormycosis is a rare but potentially lethal fungal infection in renal allograft recipients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis is the most common presentation. The usual infection route is inhalation of the spores, but certain procedures such as intravenous cannulation and bladder catheterization are often the cause of infection.

Case

A 50-year-old female dermatologist received an allograft from an emotionally related living donor, 24-year-old male with the same blood group and 3/6 mismatches. After severe attack of acute vascular rejection associated with rupture graft, that was managed properly she developed rinocereral mucormycosis. It was diagnosed early and aggressively treated with amphoteracin B and carefully monitored with favourable graft and patient survival. Up to our knowledge, this is the first case of renal transplant with extrarenal-ethemoidal sinus-mucor infection associated with acute vascular rejection that in spite of aggressive anti-rejection therapies with methylprednisolone, rituximab and plasma exchange, had favourable outcome in terms of graft and patient survival.

Conclusion

Mucormycosis in a renal allograft recipient is an extremely rare and potentially lethal complication. Aggressive anti-rejection therapy is a risk factor for the development of this unfavourable outcome. Early diagnosis, aggressive treatment with amphoteracin B and careful monitoring can be helpful in treating these patients and achieve favourable prognosis.

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