Cerebral Occlusive Artery Disease in Noonan Syndrome
Noonan syndrome is an autosomal-dominant inherited syndrome with variable expression of multiple malformations including cardiovascular and craniofacial anomalies. While cerebrovascular insults due to cardiogenic emboli, coagulation abnormalities or cerebrovascular malformations have been documented before, intracerebral occlusive artery disease is not well recognized as a cause of stroke in this syndrome. A 6-year-old girl with Noonan syndrome presented with repetitive transient ischemic attacks consisting of dysphasia and right-sided central facial and arm weakness. Neuroimaging showed acute ischemic lesions in the left putamen and caudate nucleus. Multiple intracranial stenoses were found during transcranial Doppler examination and MR angiography. Although hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was documented by transesophageal echocardiography, a cardioembolic origin of the ischemic attacks was unlikely in this case. The symptoms resolved and did not recur after antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy was initiated. Stenoses of intracranial cerebral arteries should be considered among the causes of stroke in young patients with Noonan syndrome.