Dose Response of β-Blockers in Adrenergic Receptor Polymorphism Genotypes

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Abstract

Background

In heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction, 2 clinical trials, the BEST (β-Blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial) and HF-ACTION (Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training), have reported an effectiveness interaction between the ADRB1 (β-1 adrenergic receptor) Arg389Gly polymorphism and β-blockers (BBs). HF-ACTION additionally reported a dose-related interaction of unclear origin. If confirmed and pharmacogenetically resolved, these findings may have important implications for HF with reduced ejection fraction precision therapy. We used uniform methodology to investigate BB dose-ADRB1 Arg389Gly polymorphism interaction with major clinical end points in BEST/bucindolol and HF-ACTION/other BB databases.

Methods

This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively designed DNA substudies from BEST (N=1040) and HF-ACTION (N=957). Subjects were genotyped for ADRB1 Arg389Gly and ADRA2C (α2C adrenergic receptor) Ins322-325Del. BB dose was defined as either no/low dose or high dose, according to total daily dose of either bucindolol (BEST subjects) or other BB (HF-ACTION subjects) standardized to carvedilol equivalents. The main outcome of interest was all-cause mortality, and CV mortality/HF hospitalization was a secondary outcome.

Results

Subjects in each trial had less all-cause mortality with high- versus no/low-dose BB if they had ADRB1 Arg389Arg (BEST: hazard ratio [HR]=0.40, P=0.002; HF-ACTION: HR=0.45, P=0.005) but not Arg389Gly genotype (both P>0.2). Among gene-dose groups, there was a differential favorable treatment effect of 46% for high-dose bucindolol with ADRB1 Arg389Arg versus Gly carrier genotype (HR, 0.54; P=0.018), but not for no/low-dose bucindolol. In contrast, HF-ACTION Arg389Arg genotype subjects taking no/low-dose BB had greater all-cause mortality compared with 389Gly carriers (HR, 1.83; P=0.015), whereas all-cause mortality did not vary by genotype among subjects taking high-dose BB (HR, 0.84; P=0.55).

Conclusions

The enhanced HF with reduced ejection fraction efficacy of bucindolol in the ADRB1 Arg389Arg versus 389Gly carrier genotypes occurs at high dose. Other BBs taken at low dose have reduced efficacy for Arg389Arg genotype subjects compared with 389Gly carriers, suggesting a greater relative treatment effect at high dose. These data support guideline recommendations to use high, clinical trial target doses of all BBs to treat HF with reduced ejection fraction.

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