The present study searched for a wide spectrum of features that might influence the survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A total of 266 patients, who had received sunitinib, pazopanib, or sorafenib, were evaluated using multivariable analysis and 2 bootstrap procedures. The results indicate that Fuhrman grade and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are, in addition to previously identified factors, independently associated with survival.Background:
The present study investigated the various features that might influence the overall survival (OS) of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).Patients and Methods:
A retrospective analysis was performed of consecutive patients with metastatic RCC, in whom treatment with a first-line TKI was initiated from January 2010 to December 2014, at the Department of Oncology, Military Institute of Medicine (Warsaw, Poland). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to construct a prognostic model that included independent factors for OS. We validated the model using 2 bootstrap procedures and calculation of the bias-corrected concordance index.Results:
Of the 266 patients included in the study, 201, 45, and 20 received sunitinib, pazopanib, and sorafenib, respectively. The median OS for the whole cohort was 24.8 months (95% confidence interval, 20.2-29.4 months). Six factors were independently associated with poor survival: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status > 0 (P < .0001), Fuhrman grade 3 to 4 (P < .0001), hemoglobin less than the lower limit of normal (P < .0001), lactate dehydrogenase greater than the upper limit of normal (P = .0011), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≥ 4 (P < .0001), and > 2 metastatic sites (P = .0012). The bias-corrected concordance index was 0.751.Conclusion:
Fuhrman grade and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are potential factors that affect the survival of patients with metastatic RCC treated with first-line TKIs. The presented prognostic model demonstrated satisfactory performance but requires external validation with a larger data set.