To identify the demographic and clinical factors associated with bladder urothelial carcinoma metastasis at diagnosis, patients diagnosed from 2004 to 2010 were identified in the SEER database. Factors associated with metastasis at diagnosis included female gender, black race, unmarried, unemployed, and foreign-born status. Clinicians should be aware of these potential health care disparities in order to improve early care.Background:
Although there are well-established risk factors for the diagnosis of bladder cancer, there is no consensus regarding risk factors for presentation of advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis. The objective of this study was to identify the demographic and clinical factors associated with metastasis at diagnosis in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma.Patients and Methods:
Patients diagnosed with bladder urothelial carcinoma from 2004 to 2010 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (n = 108,417). The primary outcome was metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were analyzed, and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to generate odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with metastasis at diagnosis.Results:
Of patients with bladder cancer, 3018 (2.8%) had metastasis at diagnosis and 105,399 (97.2%) had nonmetastatic disease. Patients with metastatic disease at diagnosis were more frequently female (29.6% vs. 23.6%, P < .001), black (9.4% vs. 5.0%, P < .001), and unmarried (44.1% vs. 32.5%, P < .001) compared to patients with nonmetastatic disease. On multivariable analysis, the following characteristics were confirmed to be independently associated with metastatic disease at diagnosis: female gender (vs. male, OR 1.21), black race (vs. white, OR 1.71), unmarried (vs. married, OR 1.46), unemployed (OR 1.02), and foreign-born status (OR 1.01).Conclusion:
Female gender, black race, unmarried, unemployed, and foreign-born status are independently associated with metastasis at diagnosis for bladder urothelial carcinoma. All clinicians should be aware of these potential health care disparities in order to involve social services and other support mechanisms in efforts to improve early care.