A Phase II Clinical Trial of TRC105 (Anti-Endoglin Antibody) in Adults With Advanced/Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma

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Abstract

TRC105 is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD105 (endoglin). Heavily pretreated patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma received TRC105 at 15 mg/m2 every 2 weeks on a 28-day cycle. Treatment was not associated with significant toxicities, but did not improve 6-month progression-free survival. Exploratory analyses suggest interplay between immunosuppressive subsets and TRC105, which warrants further study.

Background:

In this trial we assessed the efficacy and tolerability of TRC105, a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets CD105 (endoglin) in patients with advanced, previously treated urothelial carcinoma (UC).

Patients and Methods:

Patients received TRC105 15 mg/kg every 2 weeks on days 1 and 15 of each 28-day cycle. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months. Secondary end points included safety, toxicity, and overall survival (OS). CD105 expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a separate cohort of 50 UC patients. Biomarker studies included immune subsets, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating endothelial cells (CECs), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs), and osteopontin.

Results:

Of 13 patients enrolled, 12 were evaluable for OS and PFS. The 3-month PFS probability was 18.2% (median PFS, 1.9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-2.1 months). This met the criterion for ending accrual on the basis of the 2-stage design. Median OS was 8.3 months (95% CI, 3.3-17.0 months). IHC for CD105 scores was not associated with T stage (P = .26) or presence of lymph nodes (P = .64). Baseline levels of regulatory T and B cells, CEPs, and changes in CEC level after TRC105 exhibited trends toward an association with PFS or OS. CTCs pre- and post-TRC105 were detected in 4 of 4 patients.

Conclusion:

Although TRC105 was well tolerated, it did not improve 6-month PFS in heavily pretreated patients with advanced UC. CD105 staining was present in 50% of UC tumors at different intensities. Our observations on the pharmacodynamic significance of immune subsets, CECs, and CTCs warrant further study.

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