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Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a poor prognostic finding in urothelial carcinoma. However, its significance in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (MIUC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is uncertain. We assessed the effect of CIS found in pretreatment transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) biopsies on the pathologic and clinical outcomes.Subjects with MIUC treated with NAC before cystectomy were identified. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rates stratified by TURBT CIS status were compared. The secondary analyses included tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and an exploratory post hoc analysis of patients with pathologic CIS only (pTisN0) at cystectomy.A total of 137 patients with MIUC were identified. TURBT CIS was noted in 30.7% of the patients. The absence of TURBT CIS was associated with a significantly increased pCR rate (23.2% vs. 9.5%; odds ratio, 4.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-13.98; P = .025). Stage pTisN0 disease was observed in 19.0% of the TURBT CIS patients. TURBT CIS status did not significantly affect the PFS or OS outcomes. Post hoc analysis of the pTisN0 patients revealed prolonged median PFS (104.5 vs. 139.9 months; P = .055) and OS (104.5 vs. 152.3 months; P = .091) outcomes similar to those for the pCR patients.The absence of CIS on pretreatment TURBT in patients with MIUC undergoing NAC was associated with increased pCR rates, with no observed differences in PFS or OS. Isolated CIS at cystectomy was frequently observed, with lengthy PFS and OS durations similar to those for pCR patients. Further studies aimed at understanding the biology and clinical effect of CIS in MIUC are warranted.We performed a single-institution retrospective analysis of 137 patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy to assess the prognostic significance of carcinoma in situ (CIS). The pathologic complete response rates were significantly decreased for patients with CIS identified on transurethral resection of the bladder tumor before treatment. The long-term follow-up data from patients with isolated CIS at cystectomy revealed prolonged progression-free and overall survival.