Evaluation of the Clinical Utility of Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors in Patients Undergoing Radical Surgery for Urothelial Carcinoma of the Upper Urinary Tract

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Micro-AbstractOur results indicate that renin-angiotensin system inhibitors significantly reduced the risk of recurrence and cancer-specific mortality after radical surgery for urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors may therefore improve oncological outcomes.Background:Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors are effective for treating patients with cancer. The present study evaluated the impact of RAS inhibitors, including angiotensin-2 converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin 2 receptor blockers, after patients underwent radical surgery for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).Methods:This retrospective study included 312 patients with nonmetastatic UTUC who underwent radical surgery. The oncological outcomes of patients treated or not treated with RAS inhibitors following surgery were evaluated. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis.Results:The median follow-up duration after radical surgery was 44.7 months. The 5-year RFS, CSS, and OS rates of patients who did or did not receive RAS inhibitors were 82.3% versus 68.9% (P = .018), 88.9% versus 71.8% (P = .0044), and 68.7% versus 61.8% (P = .047), respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed that the use of RAS inhibitors was an independent prognostic factor for RFS, CSS, and OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48, P = .013; HR 0.31, P = .002; and HR 0.52, P = .01, respectively). Moreover, patients treated with RAS inhibitors versus untreated patients had better 5-year RFS compared with those in the pT2 and < pN1 subgroups (pT2: 100.0% vs. 62.2%, P = .014 and < pN1: 87.2% vs. 74.7%, P = .034).Conclusions:RAS inhibitors significantly improved RFS, CSS, and OS of patients with UTUC who underwent radical surgery. These agents may be particularly beneficial for patients with stage pT2 or < pN1 disease.

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