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A multivariate analysis of men with recurrent prostate cancer was conducted to determine whether patient-reported depression differed when stratified by treatment. The receipt of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was associated with a threefold greater risk of depression compared with radiation alone. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a greater risk. Physicians should discuss depression as a possible side effect of ADT and screen patients receiving ADT.Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and the risk of depression. We assessed whether ADT is associated with depression in a unique data set of men with recurrent prostate cancer.We studied a cohort of 656 men in the prospective COMPARE (Comprehensive, Multicenter, Prostate Adenocarcinoma) registry who experienced biochemical recurrence after radiation therapy (RT) only, radical prostatectomy (RP) with or without RT, or ADT with RP or RT. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between the modality of treatment and patient-reported depression.Of 656 men, 44 (6.7%) experienced depression. The prevalence of depression stratified by treatment was 3.2% for RT only, 5.9% for RP with or without RT, and 9.1% for ADT plus RP or RT. Compared with RT-only, ADT plus RP or RT was associated with a significantly increased rate of depression (P = .031) and RP with or without RT was not (P = .195). On multivariate analysis adjusting for age and baseline comorbidities, the receipt of ADT was associated with an increased risk of depression (odds ratio, 3.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-9.76; P = .032) compared with RT only. No statistically significant difference was found in the risk of depression for men who received RP with or without RT versus RT only (odds ratio, 2.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-6.65; P = .19).Men with recurrent prostate cancer who underwent ADT were 3 times more likely to report experiencing depression. Treating physicians should discuss depression as a possible side effect when considering the use of ADT and should screen for depression in men who have received ADT.