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Several agents have demonstrated an overall survival (OS) benefit in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC); however, optimal sequencing is unknown. Retrospective analysis of data from 574 mCRPC patients showed increasing OS with the number of therapies provided; a sequence including docetaxel, cabazitaxel (CABA), and an androgen receptor–targeted agent (ART) provided the greatest benefit. Prior administration of ART did not appear to influence CABA activity. These findings will help guide treatment decisions in daily practice.Several agents have demonstrated an overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC); however, the optimal sequencing of these therapies is unknown as a result of a lack of prospective randomized controlled trials. This retrospective study aimed to identify clinical factors influencing outcomes and to determine optimal treatment sequencing in patients with mCRPC treated with cabazitaxel (CABA) and/or androgen receptor–targeted agents (ART) after androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and docetaxel (DOC).Records of 574 consecutive patients treated (2012−2016) at 44 centers in 6 countries were retrospectively examined.A total of 267 patients received ADT → DOC → CABA (group 1), 183 patients ADT → DOC → ART → CABA (group 2), and 124 patients ADT → DOC → CABA → ART (group 3), with respective median OS from diagnosis of mCRPC of 38.3, 44.45, and 53.9 months (P = .012 for group 3 vs. group 1). Multivariate analysis showed response to first ADT ≤ 12 months, Gleason score of 8 to 10, clinical progression, and high prostate-specific antigen levels at mCRPC diagnosis were associated with worse OS. Prior receipt of ART did not influence activity of CABA.OS appeared to increase with the number of life-extending therapies, with a sequence including DOC, CABA, and an ART providing the greatest OS benefit.