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The crystal structure of tetrabutylammonium nitroprusside dihydrate (TBANPDH, ‘(C4H9)4N’2‘Fe(CN)5NO’·2H2O) was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the compound was also studied, as well as the anhydrous salt (TBANP), by room and low temperature Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and room temperature Fourier Transform Near Infra-Red Raman (FTNIRR) spectroscopies. In addition to the ground states (GS), the metastable excited states (MSI and MSII) generated by laser excitation (488 nm) at low temperature were IR studied, both of the dihydrate and the anhydrate. TBANPDH crystallizes in the trigonal space group P3221, D63, with a = b = 13.777(2), c = 22.039(2) Å, and Z = 3. The structure was solved employing 1273 independent XR reflections, with I > 2σ(I), by Patterson and Fourier methods and refined by full-matrix least-squares to R1 = 0.054.