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Prematurity and perinatal insults lead to increased developmental vulnerability. The home-based Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) was designed to improve development of preterm infants. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial the effect of IBAIP on mother–infant interaction was studied as a secondary outcome.Mother–infant interaction was assessed during the Still-face procedure at 6 months corrected age. One hundred and twelve mother–infant dyads (57 intervention, 55 control) were studied.Findings partially supported our hypothesis that the intervention would increase maternal sensitivity in interaction with their preterm infants. No effects were found on infant self-regulatory behavior or positive interaction behavior.The family-centered and strength-based approach of IBAIP appears to be a promising intervention method to promote sensitive mother–infant interaction at home after discharge from hospital. However, no positive effects were found on infant interaction behavior.