Robotic assisted minimally invasive cardiac sugery is a new technique that uses small port sites and peripheral vessel cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been used. The right internal jugular vein (IJV) is commonly used for intraoperative venous access to the central circulation and identified with an external landmark. Previous studies have demonstrated the superiority of ultrasound guidance over external landmark technique in anaesthetic and intensive care settings. The aim of the present study was to delineate the utility of ultrasound-guided cannulation of the IJV during establishment of peripheral CPB in robotic cardiac surgery.Methods
We prospectively studied 296 adult patients undergoing ultrasound-guided right IJV cannulation during establishment of peripheral CPB in robotic cardiac surgery at our institute from January 2007 to October 2012 (ultrasound group). The success rate, the first attempt success rate, access time and the complication rate of ultrasound-guided method were compared with the landmark-guided method used for 302 historical control patients (landmark group).Results
In the ultrasound group, 296 consecutive adult patients underwent ultrasound-guided right IJV cannulation during establishment of peripheral CPB in robotic cardiac surgery. In the landmark group, 302 patients underwent right IJV cannulation using the landmark-guided technique. The success rate and the first attempt success rate in the ultrasound group were significantly higher than that in the landmark group (100% vs. 88.1%, P <0.000 and 98.6% vs. 38.4%, P <0.000). Average access time in the ultrasound group was shorter than that in the landmark group ((6.3±13.6) seconds; interquartile range (4-62) seconds vs. (44.5±129.5) seconds; interquartile range (5-986) seconds). The complication rate in the ultrasound group was significantly lower than that in the landmark group (0.3% vs. 8.3%, P <0.000).Conclusion
Compared with the landmark-guided approach, ultrasound-guided cannulation of the right IJV significantly improves success rate, decreases access time and reduces complication rate during establishment of peripheral CPB in robotic cardiac surgery.