Comparative chromosome mapping of sex-linked genes and identification of sex chromosomal rearrangements in the Japanese wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa, Ranidae) with ZW and XY sex chromosome systems

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There are regional variations of sex chromosome morphologies in the Japanese wrinkled frog, Rana rugosa (2n = 26): heterogametic ZZ/ZW-type and XX/XY-type sex chromosomes, and two different types of homomorphic sex chromosomes. To search for homology between the ZW and XY sex chromosomes and the chromosome rearrangements that have occurred during sex chromosomal differentiation in R. rugosa, we performed chromosome mapping of sexual differentiation genes for R. rugosa by FISH. Three genes, AR, SF-1/Ad4BP and Sox3, were localized to both the ZW and XY chromosomes, and their locations were all different between the Z and W and between the X and Y. AR and SF-1/Ad4BP were located on the short arms of the W and X and the long arms of Z and Y, and Sox3 was mapped to the different locations on the long arms between the Z and W and between the X and Y, probably as a result of multiple rearrangements that occurred during the process of sex chromosome differentiation. However, the chromosomal locations of three genes were almost consistent between the Z and Y and between the W and X, indicating that the Z and Y chromosomes and the W and X chromosomes were respectively derived from the same origins. Dmrt1, which is located on avian sex chromosomes, was localized to autosomes in R. rugosa with both the ZW and XY sex chromosomes, suggesting that Dmrt1 might not be related to sex determination in this species.

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