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Akodon cursor is an exceptional example of high chromosomal variability, displaying diploid numbers from 14 to 16 and fundamental numbers (FN) from 18 to 26 as the result of a complex rearrangement in par 1 and pericentric inversions in three autosomal pairs. The difference in the diploid number is due to the presence of a large metacentric pair 1 in the 2n = 14 karyotype, a large metacentric 1 and two different submetacentrics (1a and 1b) in 2n = 15 and 1a and 1b submetacentric pairs in homozygosis in the 2n = 16 karyotype. Chromosomes 1a and 1b share homology with the short and long arms of the large metacentric 1 respectively. In this paper, evidence based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with telomeric sequences and G-banding indicates that pericentric inversions and fusion of chromosomes 1a and 1b are the probable rearrangements giving rise to the large metacentric 1.