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Deciding the optimal timing for extubation in patients who are mechanically ventilated can be challenging, and traditional weaning predictor tools are not very accurate. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the accuracy of lung and diaphragm ultrasound for predicting weaning outcomes in critically ill adults.MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS, Teseo, Tesis Doctorales en Red, and OpenGrey were searched, and the bibliographies of relevant studies were reviewed. Two researchers independently selected studies that met the inclusion criteria and assessed study quality in accordance with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. The summary receiver-operating characteristic curve and pooled diagnostic OR (DOR) were estimated by using a bivariate random effects analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by using predefined subgroup analyses and bivariate meta-regression.Nineteen studies involving 1,071 people were included in the study. For diaphragm thickening fraction, the area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.87, and DOR was 21 (95% CI, 11–40). Regarding diaphragmatic excursion, pooled sensitivity was 75% (95% CI, 65–85); pooled specificity, 75% (95% CI, 60–85); and DOR, 10 (95% CI, 4–24). For lung ultrasound, the area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.77, and DOR was 38 (95% CI, 7–198). Based on bivariate meta-regression analysis, a significantly higher specificity for diaphragm thickening fraction and higher sensitivity for diaphragmatic excursion was detected in studies with applicability concerns.Lung and diaphragm ultrasound can help predict weaning outcome, but its accuracy may vary depending on the patient subpopulation.