Peripheral pulmonary arterial stenosis (PPAS) in childhood is frequently associated with other syndromes; however, PPAS in adolescents and adults is rare and its etiology is not well understood. We report the clinical characteristics of adult-onset nonsyndromic PPAS associated with the p.Arg4810Lys variant of the RNF213 gene.Methods
We recently encountered an index case of severe pulmonary hypertension with multiple PPAS and intra- and extracranial arteriopathy. Because of a family history of Moyamoya disease (MMD), genetic analysis was performed, and revealed that this patient was homozygous for RNF213 p.Arg4810Lys. We searched for PPAS by reviewing the pulmonary hypertension registry and the MMD registry, and found four more cases of PPAS. Clinical features of the five patients and their families were analyzed.Results
Mean age at diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was 26 years, and the male to female ratio was 4:1. Genetic analysis of four patients revealed that all these patients were homozygous for the RNF213 p.Arg4810Lys variant. Pulmonary angiograms showed a string of beads pattern and/or diffuse stenosis of peripheral pulmonary arteries. Notably, three patients had MMD, whereas two patients did not. The three MMD patients had multiple stenoses of extracranial arteries other than the pulmonary artery.Conclusions
PPAS in segmental or subsegmental arteries in adulthood with multiple extracranial vasculopathies was found to be associated with homozygosity for RNF213 p.Arg4810Lys. RNF213 variant-associated vasculopathy should be categorized as a discrete disease entity of adulthood-onset PPAS regardless of the presence of MMD.