Multicentric Standardized Flow Cytometry Routine Assessment of Patients With Sepsis to Predict Clinical Worsening

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BACKGROUND:In this study, we primarily sought to assess the ability of flow cytometry to predict early clinical deterioration and overall survival in patients with sepsis admitted in the ED and ICU.METHODS:Patients admitted for community-acquired acute sepsis from 11 hospital centers were eligible. Early (day 7) and late (day 28) deaths were notified. Levels of CD64pos granulocytes, CD16pos monocytes, CD16dim immature granulocytes (IGs), and T and B lymphocytes were assessed by flow cytometry using an identical, cross-validated, robust, and simple consensus standardized protocol in each center.RESULTS:Among 1,062 patients screened, 781 patients with confirmed sepsis were studied (age, 67 ± 48 years; Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 36 ± 17; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, 5 ± 4). Patients were divided into three groups (sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock) on day 0 and on day 2. On day 0, patients with sepsis exhibited increased levels of CD64pos granulocytes, CD16pos monocytes, and IGs with T-cell lymphopenia. Clinical severity was associated with higher percentages of IGs and deeper T-cell lymphopenia. IG percentages tended to be higher in patients whose clinical status worsened on day 2 (35.1 ± 35.6 vs 43.5 ± 35.2, P = .07). Increased IG percentages were also related to occurrence of new organ failures on day 2. Increased IG percentages, especially when associated with T-cell lymphopenia, were independently associated with early (P < .01) and late (P < .01) death.CONCLUSIONS:Increased circulating IGs at the acute phase of sepsis are linked to clinical worsening, especially when associated with T-cell lymphopenia. Early flow cytometry could help clinicians to target patients at high risk of clinical deterioration.TRIAL; No.: NCT01995448; URL:

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