High-Resolution Mapping of Ventricular Scar: Comparison Between Single and Multielectrode Catheters

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Abstract

Background—

Mapping resolution is influenced by electrode size and interelectrode spacing. The aims of this study were to establish normal electrogram criteria for 1-mm multielectrode-mapping catheters (Pentaray) in the ventricle and to compare its mapping resolution within scar to standard 3.5-mm catheters (Smart-Touch Thermocool).

Methods and Results—

Three healthy swine and 11 swine with healed myocardial infarction underwent sequential mapping of the left ventricle with both catheters. Bipolar voltage amplitude in healthy tissue was similar between 3.5- and 1-mm multielectrode catheters with a 5th percentile of 1.61 and 1.48 mV, respectively. In swine with healed infarction, the total area of low bipolar voltage amplitude (defined as <1.5 mV) was 22.5% smaller using 1-mm multielectrode catheters (21.7 versus 28.0 cm2; P=0.003). This was more evident in the area of dense scar (bipolar amplitude <0.5 mV) with a 47% smaller very low–voltage area identified using 1-mm electrode catheters (7.1 versus 15.2 cm2; P=0.003). In this region, 1-mm multielectrode catheters recorded higher voltage amplitude (0.72±0.81 mV versus 0.30±0.12 mV; P<0.001). Importantly, 27% of these dense scar electrograms showed distinct triphasic electrograms when mapped using a 1-mm multielectrode catheter compared with fractionated multicomponent electrogram recorded with the 3.5-mm electrode catheter. In 8 mapped reentrant ventricular tachycardias, the circuits included regions of preserved myocardial tissue channels identified with 1-mm multielectrode catheters but not 3.5-mm electrode catheters. Pacing threshold within the area of low voltage was lower with 1-mm electrode catheters (0.9±1.3 mV versus 3.8±3.7 mV; P=0.001).

Conclusions—

Mapping with small closely spaced electrode catheters can improve mapping resolution within areas of low voltage.

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