Right Atrial Approach for Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias Arising From the Left Posterior–Superior Process of the Left Ventricle

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The posterior–superior process of the left ventricle (PSP-LV) is the most inferior and posterior aspect of the basal LV that extends posteriorly to the plane of the tricuspid valve. The PSP-LV is anatomically adjacent to the inferior and medial aspect of the right atrium (RA). We report a series of patients with ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) arising from the PSP-LV and describe a mapping and ablation approach from the RA guided by intracardiac echocardiography.

Methods and Results—

Mapping and ablation of the PSP-LV with an RA approach under intracardiac echocardiography guidance were performed in 5 patients with VAs (aged 44±14 years, 2 males) who had failed ablation attempts from multiple endocardial and epicardial (1 patient) sites. Mapping of the PSP-LV from the adjacent inferomedial RA was performed at sites anatomically opposite to the earliest endocardial site of activation under direct intracardiac echocardiography visualization. From the RA side of the PSP-LV, a small atrial signal and a larger ventricular signal were recorded in each case, with an activation time of 32±7 ms pre-QRS (versus 16±5 ms pre-QRS in the LV endocardium; P=0.068). We were able to capture the LV from these sites. Cryoablation was performed in 2 patients, and radiofrequency was used in the remaining 3 cases. In all patients, ablation from the RA eliminated the arrhythmia. All patients remained free of recurrent VAs after a mean follow-up of 12 (7–16) months. There were no immediate or long-term complications.


The PSP-LV can be a site of origin of VAs, which can be successfully eliminated from the adjacent RA under direct intracardiac echocardiographic visualization.

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