Temporal Trends and Temperature-Related Incidence of Electrical Storm: The TEMPEST Study (Temperature-Related Incidence of Electrical Storm)

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The occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias seems to follow circadian, daily, and seasonal distributions. Our aim is to identify potential temporal patterns of electrical storm (ES), in which a cluster of ventricular tachycardias or ventricular fibrillation, negatively affects short- and long-term survival.

Methods and Results—

The TEMPEST study (Circannual Pattern and Temperature-Related Incidence of Electrical Storm) is a patient-level, pooled analysis of previously published data sets. Study selection criteria included diagnosis of ES, absence of acute coronary syndrome as the arrhythmic trigger, and ≥10 patients included. At the end of the selection and collection processes, 5 centers had the data set from their article pooled into the present registry. Temperature data and sunrise and sunset hours were retrieved from Weather Underground, the largest weather database available online. Total sample included 246 patients presenting with ES (221 men; age: 65±9 years). Each ES episode included a median of 7 ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation episodes. Fifty-nine percent of patients experienced ES during daytime hours (P<0.001). The prevalence of ES was significantly higher during workdays, with Saturdays and Sundays registering the lowest rates of ES (10.4% and 7.2%, respectively, versus 16.5% daily mean from Monday to Friday; P<0.001). ES occurrence was significantly associated with increased monthly temperature range when compared with the month before (P=0.003).


ES incidence is not homogenous over time but seems to have a clustered pattern, with a higher incidence during daytime hours and working days. ES is associated with an increase in monthly temperature variation.

Clinical Trial Registration—

https://www.crd.york.ac.uk. Unique identifier: CRD42013003744.

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