Sex-Related Differences in Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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Abstract

Background—

There were considerable discrepancies with regard to sex-related differences in complications and prognosis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Methods and Results—

The Cochrane library and PubMed online databases were searched. Articles reporting sex-specific post–transcatheter aortic valve implantation complications and mortality were identified. Two authors selected studies and extracted data independently. Random- and fixed-effects models were used depending on between-study heterogeneity. There were 27 articles, a total of 9118 patients, enrolled in our systematic review and meta-analysis, including 4176 men and 4942 women. Pooled analyses suggested considerable sex-related differences in complications and early as well as midterm outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The difference in the risk for heart block requiring permanent pacemaker implantation was noted to be significant only in the subgroup of the CoreValve-dominating studies (pooled risk ratio [RR, men versus women], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–1.47). Although men had significantly lower risks for major/life-threatening bleeding (pooled RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68–0.96) and major vascular complications (pooled RR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.37–0.66), they had poorer prognosis. In fact, male sex was associated with significantly higher risks for deaths at both 30 days (RR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07–1.76) and 1 year (RR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14–1.49).

Conclusions—

Although men had lower risks for major/life-threatening bleeding and major vascular complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, they had less favorable short-term and midterm survival.

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