Etiology, Frequency, and Clinical Outcomes of Myocardial Infarction After Successful Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation: Two-Year Follow-Up From the ADAPT-DES Study

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Abstract

Background—

The frequency, causes, and impact of myocardial infarction (MI) after successful percutaneous coronary intervention have not been well studied.

Methods and Results—

The Assessment of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy With Drug-Eluting Stents (ADAPT-DES) study was a prospective, multicenter registry study of 8582 patients undergoing successful drug-eluting stent implantation at 11 centers in the United States and Germany. After excluding 128 patients with periprocedural MI, we investigated the pathogenesis, frequency, and long-term consequences of non-periprocedural MI in 8454 patients. MI during 2-year follow-up developed in 263 patients (3.3%) at a median (25th and 75th percentiles) time of 318 (129, 503) days. The 263 MIs were subclassified as spontaneous MI (n=78; 29.7%), secondary or indeterminate MI (n=64; 24.3%), stent thrombosis–related MI (n=63; 24.0%), and in-stent restenosis–related MI (n=58; 22.1%). Multivariable predictors of MI included clinical and angiographic factors (acute coronary syndromes presentation, diabetes mellitus, current smoker, multivessel disease, treatment of an in-stent restenotic lesion), laboratory findings (low baseline hemoglobin and reduced creatinine clearance), antiplatelet agent–related factors (higher on-treatment platelet P2Y12 receptor reactivity and premature thienopyridine discontinuation), and not being on a statin at discharge. Patients who experienced an MI during the follow-up period had significantly greater 2-year mortality than those without MI (17.3% [42 deaths] versus 3.4% [265 deaths], P<0.001). By multivariable analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for subsequent mortality during follow-up was 2.17 (1.06, 4.45) in patients with versus without a non-periprocedural MI (P=0.03).

Conclusions—

The occurrence of a non-periprocedural MI within 2 years after successful drug-eluting stent implantation is relatively infrequent, but has numerous etiologies and is significantly associated with subsequent mortality.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00638794.

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