Background: The use of radial access for percutaneous coronary intervention (r-PCI) is associated with reduced risk of bleeding complications and higher patient satisfaction. However, the use of r-PCI differs greatly by country and is unknown in China. We examined trends in the adoption of r-PCI in China over the past decade and identified factors associated with its use.
Methods: We used a two-stage random sampling strategy to create a nationally representative sample of 5,462 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in China in 2001 (n=402; 24 sites), 2006 (n=1,390; 44 sites), and 2011 (n=3,670; 54 sites). We calculated the weighted proportion of patients receiving r-PCI in each time period and conducted multivariable analysis to identify the patient and hospital characteristics associated with not receiving r-PCI in 2011.
Results: Among 5,462 patients who underwent PCI, the use of r-PCI increased markedly over time (2001: 3.4% [95% CI 0.0%-8.5%]; 2006: 36.5% [95% CI 34.2%-38.9%], 2011: 74.7% [95% CI 73.9-75.6]; P for trend <0.001). Increases in r-PCI use were widespread, including high-risk subgroups such as the elderly, women, and patients with acute coronary syndromes (Figure). In multivariable analysis of 3,670 patients undergoing PCI in 2011, cardiogenic shock and emergency PCI were strongly associated with failure to use r-PCI in 2011.
Conclusion: Over a recent ten-year period, radial access became the predominant strategy for PCI in China, even among high-risk patients. This study demonstrates the responsiveness of the interventional cardiology community to emerging evidence. A deeper understanding of the factors facilitating r-PCI adoption in China may help increase its usage in countries in which r-PCI use remains low.