Background: China National Center for Cardiovascular Disease launched a guideline-based 10-year risk assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) phone APP, and created a heart age index to visualize the CVD risk to public. This is the first time using totally Chinese local database which includes 40,000 people following up 10-15 years to assess CVD incidence risk. We assessed the self-test effect of the app in China and the feasibility of promoting risk assessment app as a primary prevention tool for CVD by government.
Methods: The app was promoted through media and government projects by encouraging people spontaneously and randomly scanning two dimensional code and answering 8 questions about CVD risk factors, including age, sex, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, weight, height, smoking. We analyzed the current status of cardiovascular risk in Chinese residents, the prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, the distribution of heart-age and so on by SPSS 19.0. Spearman bivariate correlation analysis was used to get the correlation coefficient among different risk factors.
Results: Over 5 months, 18,214 people (39.7% of men, 60.3% of women) spontaneously used the app around the whole country. The mean age was 55.9 years, the mean heart-age was 64.8 years, and the mean 10-year CVD risk was 4.1%. For hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes patients, the mean 10-year CVD risks were 8.7%, 7.1%, and 9.5% respectively. Prevalence of hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg or DBP≥90 mmHg), hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol>6.2mmol/L) and diabetes mellitus were 15.8%, 14.4% and 8.5%, respectively. There were 11.2% people smoked. Among hypertensive patients, 33.4% had hyperlipidemia at the same time, and 10.5% of diabetes patients had hyperlipidemia. There were 0.54% people who had three diseases simultaneously. The correlation coefficient between hypertension and hyperlipidemia was 0.101 (P<0.001), between hyperlipidemia and diabetes was 0.022 (P=0.003), and between hypertension and diabetes was 0.038 (P<0.001).
Conclusions: The 10-years CVD risk evaluation app can be a primary prevention tool for CVD in China, given its friendly design and visual risk. For the public, heart-age is 10 years older than actual age. Hyperlipidemia is highly associated with hypertension and diabetes, so it’s necessary for Chinese government to include blood lipid management in its national policy like hypertension and hyperglycemia management, though such policy is lacking in China