Objective: Diabetes is a common among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, little is known on the impact of diabetes on symptoms, health status, care and outcomes among AF patients. We assessed whether symptoms, health status, care and outcomes differ between AF patients with and without diabetes.
Methods: This observational cohort study included 9,749 patients with AF from the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation registry, a prospective, nationwide, multicenter outpatient registry of patients with incident and prevalent AF enrolled at 174 sites between June 2010 and August 2011. The outcomes were symptoms, health status, and AF treatment, as well as 2-year risks of death, readmission, thrombomebolic events, heart failure (HF) and AF progression.
Results: Among AF patients; those with diabetes (29.5%) were younger and more likely to have hypertension, chronic kidney disease, HF, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Patients with diabetes had a lower Atrial Fibrillation Effects on Quality of Life score (80.6 [IQR: 62.5 - 92.6] vs. 82.4 [IQR: 67.6 -93.5]; P= 0.025), but a higher CHA2DS2-VASc score (5 [IQR: 4 - 6] vs. 4 [2 - 5]; P<0.0001) and were more likely to receive anticoagulation (P<0.001). Diabetes was associated with higher mortality, with a greater overall (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.63 [95% CI: 1.04-2.56] for age<70 vs. 1.25 [1.09-1.44] for age ≥70) and cardiovascular (2.20 [1.22-3.98] for age<70 vs. 1.24 [1.02-1.51] for age ≥70) mortality risks before age 70 years. Diabetes conferred a higher risk of non-cardiovascular (CV) death (1.29 [1.06-1.56]), sudden cardiac death (1.53 [1.04-2.26]), hospitalization (1.15 [1.09-1.22]), CV hospitalization (1.13 [1.05-1.22]) and non-CV and non-bleeding-related hospitalization (1.19 [1.10-1.30]); but no increase in risks of thromboembolic events, bleeding related hospitalization, new-onset HF, and AF progression. The use of oral anticoagulants (OAC) modifies the relation of diabetes and all-cause hospitalization, with a higher risk among those on OAC (1.21 [1.12-1.29]).
Conclusions: Among patients with AF, diabetes was associated with worse AF symptoms and lower quality of life, as well an increased risk of death and hospitalizations, but not with the risk of thromboembolic or bleeding events.