Exploring the Healthcare Value of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Appropriateness, Outcomes, and Costs in Michigan Hospitals

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Assessments of healthcare value have largely focused on measuring outcomes of care at a given level of cost with less attention paid to appropriateness. However, understanding how appropriateness relates to outcomes and costs is essential to determining healthcare value.


In a retrospective cohort study design, administrative data from fee-for-service Medicare patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in Michigan hospitals between June 30, 2010, and December 31, 2014, were linked with clinical data from a statewide PCI registry to calculate hospital-level measures of (1) appropriate use criteria scores, (2) 90-day risk-standardized readmission and mortality rates, and (3) 90-day risk-standardized episode costs. We then used Spearman correlation coefficients to assess the relationship between these measures. A total of 29 839 PCIs were performed at 33 PCI hospitals during the study period. A total of 13.3% were for ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction, 25.0% for non–ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction, 47.1% for unstable angina, 9.8% for stable angina, and 4.7% for other. The overall hospital-level mean appropriate use criteria score was 8.4±0.2. Ninety-day risk-standardized readmission occurred in 23.7%±3.7% of cases, 90-day risk-standardized mortality in 4.3%±0.6%, and mean risk-standardized episode costs were $26 159±$1074. Hospital-level appropriate use criteria scores did not correlate with 90-day readmission, mortality, or episode costs.


Among Medicare patients undergoing PCI in Michigan, we found hospital-level appropriate use criteria scores did not correlate with 90-day readmission, mortality, or episode costs. This finding suggests that a comprehensive understanding of healthcare value requires multidimensional consideration of appropriateness, outcomes, and costs.

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