Fungal endocarditis

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Recent advances in medicine have caused fungal endocarditis (FE) to be a more common disease entity. Many fungi are potential pathogens in FE, although Candida species and Aspergillus species are the most common. Valvular heart disease is the necessary underlying condition for FE, with intravenous devices and antibiotic use being the predisposing factors for yeast endocarditis, whereas immunosuppression in patients with valvulopathy predisposes for mold endocarditis. Better prognosis of FE depends on fast and accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment. Echocardiography was the most valuable recent technique in the past two decades that allowed early diagnosis of FE and is probably responsible for the improved prognosis of patients with FE. In the future, development of nonculture-based diagnostic tests may further improve the sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity of microbiologic diagnosis of FE. Novel approaches in treatment, such as new antifungal drugs, also may assist in achieving cure and further improving the prognosis of this disease entity.

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