The Effects of Cortical Bone Thickness and Trabecular Bone Strength on Noninvasive Measures of the Implant Primary Stability Using Synthetic Bone Models

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This study investigated how the primary stability of a dental implant as measured by the insertion torque value (ITV), Periotest value (PTV), and implant stability quotient (ISQ) is affected by varying thicknesses of cortical bone and strengths of trabecular bone using synthetic bone models.

Materials and Methods:

Four synthetic cortical shells (with thicknesses of 0, 1, 2, and 3 mm) were attached to four cellular rigid polyurethane foams (with elastic moduli of 137, 47.5, 23, and 12.4 MPa) and one open-cell rigid polyurethane foam which mimic the osteoporotic bone (with an elastic modulus 6.5 MPa), to represent the jawbones with various cortical bone thicknesses and strengths of trabecular bone. A total of 60 bone specimens accompanied with implants was examined by a torque meter, Osstell resonance frequency analyzer, and Periotest electronic device. All data were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance. In addition, second-order nonlinear regression was utilized to assess the correlations of the primary implant stability with the four cortex thicknesses and five strengths of trabecular bone.


ITV, ISQ, and PTV differed significantly (p < .05) and were strongly correlated with the thickness of cortical bone (R2 > 0.9) and the elastic modulus of trabecular bone (R2 = 0.74–0.99).


The initial stability at the time of implant placement is influenced by both the cortical bone thickness and the strength of trabecular bone; however, these factors are mostly nonlinearly correlated with ITV, PTV, and ISQ. Using ITV and PTV seems more suitable for identifying the primary implant stability in osteoporotic bone with a thin cortex.

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