Evaluation of the Surface Treatment on Bone Healing in a Transmucosal 1-mm Area of Implant Abutment: An Experimental Study in the Rabbit Tibia

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Abstract

Purpose:

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect on bone tissue healing patterns in 1-mm area treated in the transmucosal surface of the abutment in the tibia of rabbits.

Materials and Methods:

Forty-six abutments were divided into two groups: control group (CG) with 14 abutments with smooth surface and experimental group (EG) with 32 abutments presenting a 1-mm area of the transmucosal surface treated through sandblasting with microparticles of titanium oxide followed by acid etching. Five samples of each group were analyzed using an optical laser profilometer for surface roughness characterization. Thirty-six Morse taper implants (3.5 mm in diameter and 7 mm in length) were inserted 1.5 mm subcrestal into the tibiae of nine rabbits. The implants were removed after 8, 10, and 12 weeks for histological analysis. The histological slides were prepared and analyzed qualitatively in relation to the new bone at the interface bone-abutment and quantitatively, in relation to bone height from the base of the implant. These data were computed and statistically compared inside the groups using analysis of variance and the U-test between groups for same time.

Results:

Both groups exhibited bone growth in the direction and over the surface of the abutments, with good healing. However, the EG group showed an increased height of bone formation in the crestal direction, and highly significant differences were observed (p < .001) between these measured values.

Conclusions:

Under the limitations of the present study, histological follow-up at 8, 10, and 12 weeks showed that transmucosal 1-mm area of implant abutment with treatment of the surface facilitated the maintenance of bone height around the abutment compared with the same abutment with the totally smooth surface.

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