Patient-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life Is a Predictor of Outcomes in Ambulatory Heart Failure Patients Treated With Left Ventricular Assist Device Compared With Medical Management: Results From the ROADMAP Study (Risk Assessment and Comparative Effectiveness of Left Ventricular Assist Device and Medical Management)

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Abstract

Background—

The prospective observational ROADMAP study (Risk Assessment and Comparative Effectiveness of Left Ventricular Assist Device and Medical Management) demonstrated that ambulatory advanced heart failure patients selected for left ventricular assist device (LVAD) were more likely to be alive at 1 year on original therapy with ≥75-m improvement in 6-minute walk distance compared with patients assigned to optimal medical management. Whether baseline health-related quality of life (hrQoL) resulted in a heterogeneity of this treatment benefit is unknown.

Methods and Results—

Patient-reported hrQoL was assessed with EuroQol questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS). We aimed to identify predictors of event-free survival and survival with acceptable hrQoL (VAS≥60). LVAD patients had significant improvement in 3 of 5 EuroQol dimensions (P<0.05), but no significant changes were observed with optimal medical management. Among patients with baseline VAS<55, survival on original treatment was lower for optimal medical management patients compared with those assigned to LVAD (58±7% versus 82±5%; P=0.004). No such difference was seen if baseline VAS was ≥55 (70±7% versus 75±9%; P=0.79). Survival on original therapy with acceptable quality of life was also more likely with LVAD versus optimal medical management if baseline VAS was <55, whereas outcomes in patients with higher baseline VAS scores were similar regardless of treatment assignment (P=0.046 for treatment arm and baseline VAS interaction).

Conclusions—

LVAD therapy resulted in improvement of patient health status in heart failure patients with low self-reported hrQoL, but not in patients with acceptable quality of life at the time of LVAD implantation. Patient-reported hrQoL should be integrated into decision making concerning the use and timing of LVAD therapy in heart failure patients who are symptom limited but remain ambulatory.

Clinical Trial Registration—

URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01452802.

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