Clinically Practical Lead Systems for Improved Electrocardiography: Comparison with Precordial Grids and Conventional Lead Systems

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The use of limited leads for estimating total body surface potential distributions was investigated as a practical solution to the problem associated with extensive electrocardiographic sampling used in surface potential mapping. Two practical, limited lead sets of 32 leads each were derived and contrasted to a set of 30 precordial leads similar to those used in ST-segment and QRS mapping for estimating infarct size, and to a set of nine leads simulating those used in conventional 12-lead examinations. The two arrays, one of which excluded posterior sites for use in recumbent patients, showed little difference in ability to estimate 192 lead measured maps (average rms voltage error of 35,V and average correlation coefficient of 0.97). The 30- and 9-lead arrays consistently showed twice the voltage (72,uV) and poorer pattern estimation (average correlation coefficient of 0.91) than either of the 32 lead arrays. These findings indicate the need for 20-35 properly located electrodes for accurate total body surface potential estimation. They also show that there is no difference in the abilities of a 30-lead precordial array and conventional leads to estimate maps

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