Recurrent Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia: 4. Pleomorphism

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Two or more morphologically distinct ventricular tachycardias were observed during electrophysiologic study in 14 patients with chronic sustained ventricular tachycardia. Nine of these patients hadclinical ventricular tachycardia with multiple morphologies. During the study 13 patients manifested both right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphologies. The remaining patient had RBBB with both right and left axis deviation. Changing morphologies were observed spontaneously in four patients and could be produced in all 14 by ventricular stimulation. In 12 patients both RBBB and LBBB originated in the left ventricle, and in 11 of these patients, from within a left ventricular aneurysm. Diastolic fragmented activity representing reentry was unchanged during both morphologies in four patients and during one morphology in five patients. Epicardial mapping confirmed the aneurysm as the site of origin of multiform ventricular tachycardias in two patients. Our data suggest that 1) ventricular tachycardia is frequently pleomorphic; 2) multiple morphologies usually represent variable exit sites and/or ventricular activation during the same tachycardia; and 3) there is a frequent association of pleomorphic ventricular tachycardia with left ventricular aneurysm.

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