To characterize the changes in lung volumes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and the relationship of these changes to other alterations in lung function which correlate with the severity of pulmonary vascular congestion, we made measurements of pulmonary hemodynamics, lung volume, closing volume, frequency dependence of total pulmonary resistance to forced oscillation, and arterial Po2 in 18 subjects with AMI. The most consistent finding was reduced lung volume which correlated with the severity of pulmonary diastolic hypertension. Frequency dependence of resistance showed a small but significant correlation with pulmonary hemodynamics. Closing volume measurements by the resident gas method in nine subjects was not related to hemodynamics. Follow-up studies at the time of hospital discharge revealed a significant return toward normal for arterial Po2, all lung volumes, and total pulmonary resistance at 9 Hz. Based on measurements in healthy subjects, the reduced lung volume after AMI may explain the changes in resistance. In acute and follow-up studies the degree of lung volume reduction and the severity of hypoxemia were strongly correlated.