The Cardiac Conduction System in Situs Ambiguus

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Abstract

SUMMARY

The cardiac specialized conduction tissue was studied by serial sectioning in 13 cases of situs ambiguus. In four cases of right isomerism, we found paired sinus nodes in relation to a crista terminalis, in each case a sling of conduction tissue between two atrioventricular nodes was present regardless of the ventricular morphology or cardiac position. In the cases with left isomerism, the sinus node was hypoplastic abnormally located. We saw two types of atrioventricular conduction systems. In the three cases in which the morphologically right ventricle lay to the right of the morphologically left ventricle (presumed d-loop), a single atrioventricular bundle arose from a normally located atrioventricular node. In the five cases in which the morphologically right ventricle lay to the left of the morphologically left ventricle (presumed 1-loop) in the one case with a univentricular heart, paired atrioventricular nodes were present, linked or potentially linked by a sling of conduction tissue.

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