Femoral artery pressure (FAP) measurements were carried out to evaluate the hemodynamic significance of aorto-iliac occlusive disease in 150 patients (173 limbs) at the time of transfemoral angiography. Clinical assessment based upon traditional criteria of claudication level, pulse examination, and monoplane angiography were at variance with the results of this physiologic testing in approximately one-third of the patients. Results were most variable, and FAP testing most helpful in evaluating patients with moderate diffuse disease on angiography, who are usually difficult to evaluate clinically. Strong correlation existed between FAP evaluation and the results of arterial reconstructive surgery. Of the patients with a positive FAP result who underwent proximal vascular reconstruction, 96% had satisfactory relief of ischemic symptoms despite uncorrected distal disease in the majority. In contrast, 57% of the patients undergoing proximal operation despite a normal FAP result were unrelieved of symptoms and required subsequent distal procedures. Similar correlation existed with results of femoro-popliteal and femoro-femoral grafting. This simple physiologic test has been found of great value in selecting the proper level of arterial reconstruction and in accurately predicting the results of surgery.