Use of Direct Angioplasty for Treatment of Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction in Hospitals With and Without On-Site Cardiac Surgery

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Abstract

Background.

In the Myocardial Infarction, Triage, and Intervention (MITI) registry of acute myocardial infarction, 441 (12%) of 3750 patients had direct angioplasty as initial treatment. Approximately half (233) were performed in hospitals with no on-site surgery.

Methods and Results.

Procedure success rates, use of emergent surgery, and factors influencing outcome were compared in both angioplasty groups as well as with 653 patients treated with thrombolytic therapy in the same hospitals. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between patient groups treated by angioplasty in the two types of hospitals. Patency was established in 88% of patients. Only 1.4% underwent emergent surgery. Overall, survival was 93% but was significantly worse after a failed procedure in all ECG and hemodynamic subsets as well as in those with prior bypass surgery. In a multivariate analysis, age, initial heart rate, blood pressure, and prior bypass surgery but not type of hospital were predictive of survival. Survival rates were similar, but there tended to be fewer strokes (0.6% versus 2.1%,P=.12), shorter hospital stays (7.0 versus 8.1 days,P<.001), and less recurrent ischemia (20% versus 30%,P=.009) in patients treated by angioplasty compared with thrombolysis. Readmission and reinfarction rates were similar for both treatments.

Conclusions.

Observations from this community registry suggest that mortality after direct angioplasty is low and the use of emergent surgery is infrequent. Outcome in this registry study was dependent on initial hemodynamic findings and infarct location but not on the presence of on-site surgery. Compared with thrombolytic therapy, the incidence of complications was the same or lower, but this needs confirmation in randomized trials. (Circulation.1993;88[part 1]:2067–2075.)

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