Coronary Angioplasty Statewide Experience in California

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Abstract

Background.

This report describes the in-hospital experience with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for the state of California in 1989. Data are derived from the statewide hospital discharge abstracts.

Methods and Results.

A total of 24 883 PTCAs were performed; most patients (70%) were men and most procedures were single vessel (87%). About one fifth (19%) of patients had a principal diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Overall mortality was 1.4% and was higher in the AMI group (4.2%) versus the non-AMI group (0.8%,P=.0001). Mortality was higher for AMI patients having PTCA on the day of or day after admission (5.5%) versus those treated later (2.6%,P=.0001). Five percent of patients had coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) after PTCA; CABG was performed on the same day as PTCA in 61.7% of cases. Patients presenting with AMI were more likely to have CABG (7.1%) than non-AMI patients (4.5%,P=.0001). Mortality associated with CABG was 7.3% and was higher in the AMI group (12.0%) than in the non-AMI group (5.5%,P=.0001). Factors predictive of increased mortality by bivariate analysis included age >63 years (2.1% mortality versus 0.8% ≤63,P=.01), female sex (1.9% versus 1.2% for men,P<.01), and the presence of diabetes (1.9% versus 1.3% for nondiabetics,P<.05). Multiple logistic regression showed that timings of PTCA with respect to admission (P=.004) and age (P=.05) were predictors of mortality, but female sex was predictive only in the non-AMI group (P=.03). Mean hospital charges were $19 597 (±SD, $18 213). Forty-two percent of the 110 hospitals performed more than the recommended minimum of 200 cases per year. The requirement for CABG during the same admission or the combined adverse outcome of CABG and/or death was increased in the lower-volume centers for both AMI and non-AMI patients (P<.001), although mortality alone was not.

Conclusions.

The mortality and need for CABG surgery in the statewide California PTCA experience is higher than that generally reported in the literature. In patients with an admitting diagnosis of AMI, the overall mortality was higher, as was the need for CABG and the associated CABG mortality. Most hospitals performed fewer than 200 PTCAs per year. Rates of CABG surgery and the combination of CABG and/or mortality, adjusted only for the presence or absence of AMI, were increased at the low-volume institutions. (Circulation.1993;88:2735–2743.)

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