Cyclosporine-induced hypertension may be related to vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles in the glomeruli caused by changes in the prostaglandin profile. ω-3 Fatty acids have demonstrated vasodilatory properties related to a favorable effect in the prostaglandin profile. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of oral supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids in cyclosporine-treated cardiac transplant recipients.Methods and Results.
The study consisted of 20 orthotopic cardiac transplant recipients with hypertension who were prospectively randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive either ω-6 fatty acids (placebo group, n=10) or ω-3 fatty acids (treatment group, n=10). Blood pressure, systemic hemodynamics, two-dimensional guided M-mode and Doppler echocardiography, and laboratory values (serum creatinine, lipid profile) were recorded at baseline and at 12 weeks. The treatment group demonstrated a significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (120±7 versus 102±7 mm Hg;P=.0001) associated with a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (2107±45 versus 1426±60 dynes · sec · cm−5;P=.0001). No changes in indexes of left ventricular structure and function occurred, except for a modest decrease in deceleration time (211±10 versus 182±12 milliseconds;P=.05), an index of left ventricular diastolic function.Conclusions.
ω-3 Fatty acids (3 g/d) reduce blood pressure by decreasing systemic vascular resistance and, therefore, can be used as an adjuvant for the treatment of hypertension in cyclosporine-treated cardiac transplant recipients. Their vasodilatory effect may be related to a beneficial change in the prostaglandin profile. (Circulation.1993;88[part 2]:281–285.)