A significant proportion of patients receiving endocardial defibrillation lead systems must accept either high defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) with lower safety margins or lead implantation by thoracotomy. We examined the feasibility of achieving universal application of endocardial leads and lower defibrillation energy requirements by optimizing the lead system location in conjunction with biphasic shocks.Methods and Results
Two defibrillation catheter electrodes were positioned in the right ventricle and superior vena cava. Thoracic patch electrodes were placed at three sites (apical, pectoral, and axillary). Fifteen-joule, 10-J, and 5-J bidirectional simultaneous biphasic shocks were delivered across three different triple electrode configurations (right ventricle, superior vena cava, and patch) after inducing ventricular fibrillation (VF), and DFT was determined. All patients in whom VF was reproducibly inducible (14 patients) could be reproducibly defibrillated at 15 J at one or more patch electrode locations. Fifteen-joule shocks were effective at three thoracic electrode locations in 12 patients and at two electrode locations in 6 patients. The lowest mean single-shock DFI was 8.1±3.8 J. In 4 patients, ventricular flutter was reproducibly induced and reverted at 15 J in all patients. Mean DFT for the axillary location was 83±3.5 J and was significantly lower than apical (12.8±5.6 J, P=.008) and pectoral (11.6±4.1 J, p>.04) patch locations. The probability of success was significantly higher at 10 J with axillary location (78% of patients, p>.03 compared with both other sites) and at 15 J (P<.05 compared with the apical location). Low-energy endocardial defibrillation (s10 J) was feasible in 10 of 14 tested patients at more than 1 thoracic electrode location at 10 J, whereas only 1 of 7 successful patients could be reverted at more than 1 electrode location at 5 J (P<.02).Conclusions
The use of axillary or pectoral patch lead location can allow endocardial defibrillation with biphasic shocks at energies s15 J in this lead configuration. Virtually universal application of endocardial defibrillation lead systems can be predicted from these data. Reduction in maximum pulse generator output to 525 J using these two thoracic electrode locations with bidirectional shocks can be feasible and maintain an adequate safety margin and permit thoracic pulse generator implantation. Lowering endocardial defibrillation energy <10 J requires increasing specificity of thoracic electrode location.