Myocardial tissue tagging with the use of magnetic resonance imaging allows noninvasive regional analysis of heart wall motion and deformation. However, any evaluation of the effect of disease or treatment requires a baseline reference of normal values and variation. We studied the two-dimensional motion of material points imaged within the left ventricular wall using spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) in 12 normal human volunteers.Methods and Results
Five parallel short-axis and five parallel long-axis slices were acquired at five times during systole. SPAMM tags were generated at end diastole using a 7-mm grid. Intersection point data were analyzed for displacement, rotation, and torsion, and triangles of points were analyzed for local rotation and principal strains. Short-axis displacement was the least in the septum for all longitudinal levels (P < .001). Torsion about the long axis was uniform circumferentially because of the motion of the centroids used to reference the rotation. In the long-axis images, the base displaced longitudinally toward the apex, with the posterior wall moving farther than the anterior wall (13.4±2.2 versus 9.7±1.8 mm, P < .001) in this direction. The largest principal strain (maximum lengthening) was approximately radially oriented in both views. In the short-axis images, the minimum principal strain (maximum shortening) increased in magnitude toward the apex (P < .001) with little circumferential variation, except at midventricle, where the anterior wall showed greater contraction than the posterior wall (−0.21±0.03 versus −0.19±0.02, P < .02).Conclusions
Consistent regional variations in deformation are seen in the normal human heart. Displacement and maximum shortening strains are well characterized with twodimensional magnetic resonance tagging; however, higherresolution images will be required to study transmural variations.