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The effects of chronic exercise training on myocardial contractility and β-adrenergic signal transduction in hearts with left ventricular dysfunction have not been determined.Fourteen-week-old cardiomyopathic BIO 53.58 and normal F1B Syrian hamsters underwent 10 weeks of treadmill training and were compared with 24-weekold BIO 53.58 and F1B untrained controls. Left ventricular isovolumic maximum positive dP/dt and peak developed pressure were significantly lower in BIO 53.58 than in F1B controls. Exercise training improved left ventricular contractile indices in BIO 53.58 but not F1B hamsters. The left ventricular β-adrenergic receptor number (Bmax) was similar in BIO 53.58 and F1B controls. Basal adenylate cyclase activity (ACA) and ACAs stimulated by isoproterenol, 5′-guanylylimidodiphosphate (GppNHp), sodium fluoride, and forskolin were significantly lower in BIO 53.58 than in F1B controls. The functional activity of stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein (Gs), as determined by reconstitution with S49 lymphoma cyc− cell membranes, was significantly lower in BIO 53.58 controls. After 10 weeks of exercise training, Bmax and basal and isoproterenol-stimulated ACAs were unchanged in either BIO 53.58 or F1B hamsters compared with controls. However, in F1B hamsters, training decreased ACAs stimulated by GppNHp, sodium fluoride, and forskolin, with a reduced functional activity of Gs In contrast, these ACAs increased significantly in association with an enhanced G, activity in cardiomyopathic BIO 53.58 hamsters after training.Chronic exercise training does not change receptor-mediated β-adrenergic responsiveness in either F1B or BIO 53.58 hamsters. However, exercise training reduces Gs activity in normal F1B hamsters and improves the functional abnormality of Gs in cardiomyopathic BIO 53.58 hamsters. This improvement may potentially contribute to augmented left ventricular contractility in BIO 53.58 after training.