Elevated Circulating Levels of C-C Chemokines in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure

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Immunologic and inflammatory responses appear to play a pathogenic role in the development of congestive heart failure (CHF). Activation and migration of leukocytes to areas of inflammation are important factors in these immunologic responses. Because the C-C chemokines are potent chemoattractants of monocytes and lymphocytes and can modulate other functions of these cells (eg, generation of reactive oxygen species), we measured circulating levels of three C-C chemokines in CHF.


This first demonstration of increased circulating levels of C-C chemokines in CHF with particularly high levels in patients with severe disease may represent previously unrecognized pathogenic factors in CHF. (Circulation. 1998;97:1136-1143.)

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