Electrocardiographic Imaging: Noninvasive Characterization of Intramural Myocardial Activation From Inverse-Reconstructed Epicardial Potentials and Electrograms

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A recent study demonstrated the ability of electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) to reconstruct, noninvasively, epicardial potentials, electrograms, and activation sequences (isochrones) generated by epicardial activation. The current study expands the earlier work to the three-dimensional myocardium and investigates the ability of ECGI to characterize intramural myocardial activation noninvasively and to relate it to the underlying fiber structure of the myocardium. This objective is motivated by the fact that cardiac excitation and arrhythmogenesis involve the three-dimensional ventricular wall and its anisotropic structure.


ECGI can noninvasively estimate the depth of intramyocardial electrophysiological events and provides information on the spread of excitation in the three-dimensional anisotropic myocardium on a beat-by-beat basis. (Circulation. 1998;97:1496-1507.)

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